Overview of Fort Bowie, Arizona Territory at the base of Helens Dome, taken in Late July or early August 1874. Fort Bowie was established in 1862 to protect travelers as they crossed through Apache lands in Southern Arizona. Image number 75 on orange D. P. Flanders Photographic Album of Trip Through Arizona mount. Collection of the Author. Copyright 2000 Jeremy Rowe, All Rights Reserved.
Arizona was an obscure, little known corner of the country prior to 1870. The best known landmarks were probably Maricopa Wells, the last water on the Butterfield Stage route before the Colorado River on the way to California, and the river crossing at Fort Yuma.
1871 saw national attention begin to focus on Arizona as photographs from the Wheeler and Powell surveys showed the country the natural wonders of the Grand Canyon. As awareness of Arizona began to grow, entrepreneurial photographers began seeking images to feed interest in images of the West. One of the first photographers who sought to capitalize on the interest in Arizona was Dudley P. Flanders. Born in Massachusetts in 1840, by 1865 Flanders had settled California, marrying Miss Olivia Armstrong in Eureka California on December 31 of that year. In early March of 1866 Flanders purchased W. N. Tuttle's interest in the Eureka Photographic Gallery, and soon advertised the availability of ambrotypes and card photographs. Business apparently was far from brisk, and the gallery was closed on July 11th. Flanders stayed in the Humbolt county area through the end of the year.
Flanders surfaces in San Francisco briefly in early 1867, and reappears later in the year in Grass Valley, Nevada operating the Premium Photographic Gallery in partnership with a Mr. Vance. This photographic business was apparently successful, as Flanders opened a branch gallery in Truckee, California, advertising in the Truckee Tribune on October 31, 1868
By 1873, Flanders had moved once again, to Los Angeles operating the Art Photographic Parlor in Downey's Block on Main Street under the partnership of Flanders & Godfrey. The Gallery offered large and stereoscopic views of Los Angeles, San Bernadino, and San Diego counties.
Beginning in 1871, the federally funded Wheeler and Powell survey expeditions to the Grand Canyon began to raise public interest awareness of the Arizona Territory. Photography played a key role in the promotion of the expeditions and of the relatively unknown Southwestern U.S. One of the key media used to promote the expeditions was the stereograph.
Stereographs used the principle of binocular vision to permit the viewer to perceive three dimensional depth from two, two dimensional images. Human eyes are separated just over two inches, giving each eye a slightly different perspective for its view of the world. When two photographs are made from similarly separated perspectives, and are viewed in a manner in which the left eye sees only the let eye perspective, and the right eye sees only the right perspective, the viewer perceives a single, three dimensional image. Stereographs were one of the most popular mass media of the 19th century, and stereographs of Native Americans and the fauna, flora, and geologic formations of the Southwest were popular subjects collected worldwide.
The stereo process typically used a small negative size, yielding a relatively short exposure time. Both factors made stereo an ideal format for location photography in the days of wet-plate photography where photographers had to coat, expose, and process the negative before the colloidion surface dried. The stereograph was produced by contact printing the negative, then trimming, aligning, and mounting the two photographic images on a card mount.
Pack train for excursion from Tucson to San Carlos, Reservation. This image shows the photographic party including Dudley Flanders and Adolpho Rodrigo at the San Carlos Reservation. Taken in in September or October 1874. Image number 78 on yellow Scenes in Arizona, D. P. Flanders Artist mount. Collection of the Author. Copyright 2000 Jeremy Rowe, All Rights Reserved
Most stereographs marketed prior to the mid 1880s were produced as albumen prints mounted on card stock. Typical mount sizes were 7" wide and 3 1/2" high holding 2 - 3 X 3 1/2" prints. Later, larger mounts 4", 4 1/2" and 5" high became popular, each maintaining the standard 7" width. The images of Arizona produced by Flanders appear in both the small and large stereo mount sizes. Production and distribution of stereographs was an economic foundation for many photographers, and the competition for images of timely subjects was fierce, both in creating original images, and occasionally in creating "pirated"copy views of popular images.
Late in 1873, Flanders decided to travel to Arizona to capitalize on the national interest generated by the stereographs made by the pioneer survey photographers such as E. O. Beaman, John Hillers, and Timothy O'Sullivan. On November 13, Flanders initiated a partnership with Henri Penlon for an excursion East into Arizona to make and market stereographs of the emerging Arizona Territory.
The two entrepreneurs left Los Angeles on November 14, arriving at Ft. Mohave, Arizona Territory on December 8, then traveling on to the capital of the Territory, arriving in Prescott on December 21. Flanders & Penlon took stereographs of the stage stops and forts that marked their travel across Arizona. The December 26 edition of the Prescott Miner carried an advertisement for the two photographers, offering views of Fort Mohave, Camp Beale Springs, and other locations on the route from California.
Detail view of Elliott's Arastra, a primitive mechanical device for crushing ore as part of refining. Elliott also apparently offered a metal fabrication service for local miners. Taken near Prescott, A. T. in Spring , 1874. Image number 45 on yellow Scenes in Arizona, D. P. Flanders Artist mount. Collection of the Author. Copyright 2000 Jeremy Rowe, All Rights Reserved.
PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTICE, Do not forget that FLANDERS & PENLON, Artists, remain in Prescott only during the present month. And the public are particularly requested to call and examine specimens of work MADE IN PRESCOTT, whether they desire work or not, as it is always a pleasure to receive visitors. Their LIFE SIZE PORTRAITS CANNOT BE EXCELLED. Pictures taken in cloudy weather guaranteed to any taken on the brightest day.
During the travels in January, Mr. Penlon became ill, eventually critically. Henri Penlon passed away at the home of William Buffman on February 6. Flanders continued to honor his agreement with Henri Penlon and retained the name of the partnership on both his advertisements and photographic mounts throughout much of his stay in Arizona.
Tonto Apache scout and his family , probably taken near Camp Verde in Central Arizona, showing a typical Tonto Apache dwelling in the background Taken in Spring 1874. Image number 100 on yellow Scenes in Arizona, D. P. Flanders Artist mount. Collection of the Author. Copyright 2000 Jeremy Rowe, All Rights Reserved.
Flanders remained in Prescott through April of 1874 and continued to make stereographs of the area. An advertisement in the Arizona Miner on April 3 offered: Stereopticon views of the Aztec ruins on Beaver Creek, views of the Verde Valley, Fort Whipple, Prescott in Winter, Prescott in Summer, Mr. Prescott, the Indian agency with its 1500 savage Apache, who stand, sit, and lie for the operator and his masked battery.
Prior to leaving Prescott, Flanders offered a 5 day series of lectures illustrated with the images made in Arizona to that date. The lectures were illustrated by a projection system called a "stereopticon"which projected slides, often made from half of the stereo negative. The presentations were well received and received a positive review in the Arizona Miner on April 24.
By invitation , we visited Mr. Flanders' stereopticon presentation rehearsal last evening and were positively gratified at what we saw. His foreign views are simply splendid, and the views of camps and Indians here in the Territory are all that could be wished. We would suggest this entertainment as instructive and, we believe, will prove more than the money's worth to anyone who may choose to attend. His performance will continue for 4 evenings. Mr. Scott assistant to Mr. Flanders, is an excellent hand in this line of business, and has done much credit to himself in the part he has performed in the preparation of these views.
The traveling party posed in front of Grant's Station, the stage coach office in Wickenburg, A. T. Wickenburg was established to supply the Vulture Mine in central Arizona. National attention focused on the area when Henry Loring of the Wheeler expedition was murdered by Indians outside of Wickenburg in 1871. Taken in Spring 1874. Image number 56 on yellow Scenes in Arizona, D. P. Flanders Artist mount. Collection of the Author. Copyright 2000 Jeremy Rowe, All Rights Reserved.
Flanders traveled on the stage route South through Wickenburg and Maricopa Wells to Tucson to continue his tour. By June 6th Flanders was advertising in the Arizona Citizen offering retouched negatives, cabinet photographs, and frames in addition to his stereographs of Arizona. Building on the success of the stereopticon lectures in Prescott, Flanders advertised lectures at Levin's Garden in Tucson on June 13.
Soon after his arrival in Tucson, Flanders began working with a local itinerant photographer, Adolpho Rodrigo, who operated the city's major studio. Images made at this studio exhibit significant problem with processing resulting in significant fading and discoloration. This problem appears to relate to the studio, as the condition problems are shared with at least one other photographer who subsequently used the studio, Henry Buehman.
Southeastern Arizona was known as rough and dangerous territory, and there was great public interest in views from this area. To add images of this area to his portfolio, Flanders began a trip to Fort Bowie and New Camp Grant on July 11th. Fort Bowie had been established for almost 14 years, and had been the focus of action with Cochise. Camp Grant had recently moved to a more pleasant location and the popular press was full of reports of the attempts to control Arizona's hostile Apache along the stage routs and among the mining camps and towns beginning to grow throughout the Territory.
"School portrait"of the Clergy and Papago constituents at the Indian School at San Xavier Mission south of Tucson, taken in Late July or early August 1874. Image number 68 on orange D. P. Flanders' Photographic Album of Trip Through Arizona mount. Collection of the Author. Copyright 2000 Jeremy Rowe, All Rights Reserved.
Upon his return to Tucson on August 8th, Flanders worked out of the studio of Adolpho Rodrigo. Rodrigo had arrived in Tucson and opened a studio on the corner of Courthouse and Maiden Lane late in July.
In an ad in the August 22nd Arizona Citizen, Flanders gave notice that he would soon be departing Tucson. Flanders and Rodrigo, apparently working together, left Tucson for the San Carlos reservation and Fort Apache. The gallery in Tucson was left "open and in charge of a competent artist" (who is as yet unidentified) during their trip.
Studio portrait of Apache agent John Clum with his scouts taken a few days after his arrival at the San Carlos Reservation. John Clum was an extremely successful Indian Agent and a major figure in the development of Arizona as publisher of the Tombstone Epitaph. Clum also was known for his contributions as the Postmaster for the State of Alaska. Taken in early August 1874. Image is unnumbered, on orange D. P. Flanders Photographic Album of Trip Through Arizona mount. Collection of the Author. Copyright 2000 Jeremy Rowe, All Rights Reserved.
While at San Carlos, Flanders and Rodrigo concentrated on the notables that they found. The images from this period include studio portraits of General George Crook, military head of Arizona, and the Indian Agents at San Carlos, Mr. Roberts and his newly arrived replacement John Clum. The reservation provided an ideal opportunity to document life on the reservation, and to make portraits of the Apache chiefs key to the existence of the reservation such as Diablo, and Casadora.
After a month and a half on the road Flanders and Rodrigo returned to Tucson on October 24th. Flanders left to return to California by stage on October 29th. The last notice of Flanders activity in Arizona is his listing as a passenger on the steamer the Jolly Giant leaving Yuma up the Colorado on November 25th.
After his return to Los Angeles, Flanders began marketing the stereographs under the series title Scenes in Arizona. Flanders offered the stereographs from the Arizona trip on three mounts, the earliest was an orange and purple mounts labeled " A Photographic Album of a Trip Through Arizona by Flanders and Penlon".Many of these views were probably printed in Arizona at either the Prescott or Tucson studio where Flanders worked. Later, probably after his return to Los Angeles, Flanders offered the views with printed labels on yellow mounts with two versions of the "Scenes in Arizona" series title, one with the title in a plain letter form, the other using a more elaborate script.
Outdoor studio portrait of Apache Chief Hosea, at the San Carlos Reservation in Southern Arizona. Hosea was a scout and is shown well armed with his rifle, pistol and bowie knife. Taken in late July or early August 1874. Image number 78. On yellow Scenes in Arizona, D. P. Flanders Artist mount. Collection of the Author. Copyright 2000 Jeremy Rowe, All Rights Reserved.
In research to date, over half of the titles offered by Flanders have been identified on one or more of the mounts. It is interesting to note that the sequence of images roughly follows the path of the Flanders excursion through Arizona. Also, images from this series have been identified on the mounts of several photographers and publishers including Payne, Stanton, & Co. of Los Angeles, Williscraft of Prescott, and the Continent Publishing Company. Whether these appearances are examples of pirating or were legitimate uses of the images is not known.
The body of work produced by Dudley Flanders offers one of the best views of life in Territorial Arizona in the mid-1870's that has been identified to date. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few images, they have remained virtually unknown during the 120 years since they were produced. Flanders work provides a much more personal, intimate and realistic view of life in Territorial Arizona than most of the work produced by the expedition photographers whose images have become icons of the 19th century West.
Distribution of rations, Muster day, at the San Carlos Reservation. Tribes represented were Mohave, Yuma, and Apache bands including Arivaioa, Chiricahua, Coyoterto, Mimbreno, Mogollon, Pinaleno, San Carlos, Tonto, and Tsiiladen. Taken in September or October 1874. Image number 94 on yellow Scenes in Arizona, D. P. Flanders Artist mount. Collection of the Author. Copyright 2000 Jeremy Rowe, All Rights Reserved.
1. Atkinsons Station, Mohave River
2. Cottonwood Station, Mohave River
2. Scene near Soda Lake, Ca.
3. Soda Lake (alt. title)
4. Cave Station, Mojave River
4. Camp Beales Springs, A.T., Looking S. (alt. title)
6. Camp Mojave A. T. Looking down teh river - 1873
7. Camp Mojave, A.T.
9. Camp Beales Springs, Arizona, Dr. Reagles Quarters
10. Hualpai Mtns. as seen from the Cerbat Range
12. Indians at Camp Beale Springs
13. Camp Beale Springs
13. Montezuma Wells, N. Side. (alt. title)
15. Prescott in Summer
16. Prescott in Winter
17. Arizona Prospectors
17. Prescott in Summer (Gurley at Montezuma Street) (alt. title)
19. Beaver Creek
19. Montezuma Wells, South Side (alt. title)
19. Genl Crooks Band (alt. title)
20. Apache, Tonto (portrait of 3 indian maidens and a child)
20. Arizona Prospector (alt. title)
20. Montezuma Wells (alt. title)
21. Montezuma Wells, East Side (manuscript title)
24. Reservation Peak at Verde Reservation
26. Ruins at Montezuma Wells (manuscript title)
27. Apache Tontos' Wickeups
29. Yuma Apaches Wickeups
31. Muster Day at Verde Reservation
32. Chiefs at Verde Reservation (manuscript title)32. Squaws at Verde Reservation (alt. title)
33. Apache Chiefs Mounted, at Verde Reservation34. Squaws at Reservation
36. Mohave-Apache Wicker-ups
38. Birds eye view Verde Valley
40. Aztec Ruins, Opposite Camp Verde
42. Montezuma Caves on Bear Creek
44. Elliotts Factory, Prescott
45. Elliotts Arastra, Prescott
47. Unidentified river scene
51. Ft. Whipple Looking N.
51. Telegraph Station at Maricopa Wells (alt. title)
52. Moores Station, at Maricopa Wells
52. Reservoir Hill North of Fort Whipple, Prescott, Az.
55. Ft. Whipple (looking toward San Francisco Mtns)
56. Grants Station, Wickenburg
58. Station on the Hassayampa
60. Mouth of the Hassayampa
61. Grants Station, Wickenberg (handwritten)
62. Grants Station, Gen'l view. James Grant's Stage Station,Wickenberg, Arizona.
62. Moore╠s Station, at Maricopa Wells (alt title)
65. Papajo Reservation from Tower of S.X.C.
66. Papajo Reservation from Tower of S.X.C.
67. Papajo Reservation from San X. Church
68. Papajo School, San Xavier
69. Crossing of the San Pedro
69. Indian Agency, Pima Reservation (manuscript title)
70. Camp Bowie (Apache Pass) - Looking S.
70. Corpus Christi, Tucson (manuscript title)
71. Church of San Xavier. San Xavier Del Bac.
71. San Xavier Church (manuscript title)
72. Papago vil. - near San Xavier
72. Old Camp Bowie (Apache Pass.)
73. View of Papago Village (manuscript title)
74. Helens Dome, Apache Pass.
74. View of Papago Village (manuscript title)
75. Camp Bowie (Apache Pass) Looking South
75. Papago School at San Xavier (manuscript tile)
76. Group of Officers and Ladies, Apache Pass
77. Upper Crossing, San Pedro (manuscript title)
78. Hosea, Apache Chief (seated studio portrait of Zeli Chiracahua chief)
78. Camp Bowie and Helen╠s Dome (manuscript title)
79. Es-kim-en-zin. a Renegade Chief
79. Camp Bowie, looking S. E. (manuscript title)
80. Es-kim-en-zin & band, prisoners, Camp Grant
80. View of Old Camp Bowie & ¤Pass (manuscript title)
81. Guard-house, Camp Grant
81. View of San Sinon Valleythru╠ Pass (manuscript title)
82. View of Mt. Graham from Camp Grant
82. Helens Dome, Apache Pass (manuscript title)
83. Headquarters at Camp Grant
83. Group of Officers & Ladies, Camp Bowie (manuscript title)
84. Goodwine Canon, Apache Pass (manuscript title)
85. Camp Bowie looking South (manuscript title)85. Indian Prisoners, with implements of peace (alt. title)
88. San Carlos Indian Reservation
89. Guard House, Camp Grant & Mount Graham (manuscript title)
90. Casadora and Wives, Chief at San Carlos
90. Mt. Graham from Camp Grant (manuscript title)
91. Headquarters, Camp Grant (manuscript title)91. Squaws at San Carlos Reservation (alt. title)
92. Headquarters with Canon, Camp Grant (manuscript title)92. Indian Girls at San Carlos Reservation (alt. title)
93. Agent and Chiefs, San Carlos Reservation
94. Muster Day, at San Carlos
95. Pack Train, San Carlos Reservation
96. Apache Boy Es-Kin, San Carlos Reservation97. Counting Apaches at Camp Apache
98. Apache Scouts at Camp Apache (Cooley, Lt. Rice, Genl. Crook, Maj. Randall, Lt. Reilly, McGill, Es-Ki Elaw, Peboni )
99. View of Tucson, A. T. (manuscript title)
100. Tonto Apaches
102. Apache Tonto (3 young women and child in front of dwelling)Un-numbered Vews
Beale Springs, Arizona (manuscript title on reverse)
Colorado River near Mojave, A.T.
Five San Carlos Apache Indians and [name illegible]-Camp at night on a trail
Genl Crooks Band (at the new courthouse, Prescott)
John Clum and his Apache Scouts
Montezuma Wells, East Side
Unidentified scene of Camp Grant (similar to 82)
View at Camp Apache, A.T.